South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (Korean: 대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk, pronounced [tɛː.ɦan min.ɡuk̚] ( listen); lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goryeo, a dynasty which ruled from the 10th to 14th centuries. South Korea lies in the north temperate zone and has a predominantly mountainous terrain. It comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 99,392 km² (38,375 sq mi). The capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of 10 million.